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dz̸֪ʶͼݹ

2017-3-8 17:59| : ɽ_С| 鿴: 11961| : 0|ԭ: |: оԺBIBDR

ժҪ: š˹ܡٶȻԾˡѧϰֿȵ⣬֪ʶͼסҲоߡҵͶĿеһš򵥵˵֪ʶͼסͼΣGraphķʽչ֡ ...

ݿ ģ SQL

š˹ٶȻԾˡѧϰֿȵ⣬֪ʶͼסҲоߡҵͶĿеһš򵥵˵֪ʶͼסͼΣGraphķʽչ֡ʵ塱ʵ塰ԡԼʵ֮ġϵͼǽȡGoogle֪ʶͼ׽ҳеһӡ4ʵ壬ֱǡ桱ɯ͡׿ʻޡͼȷչʾˡ桱Ժֵ֡պʱȣԼ֮ĹϵɯǴĻȣ̸۵ʱкܶ߻᲻ϵݿγеġER Diagramʵ-ϵͼĸijֽǶȵ˵ȷʵ֮ͬݴͳݿۣǽʵӳ䵽ϢʱҪעϢʵ壨ʵԣʵϵERͼǷӳʵʵϵĸΪĸģ֮͡ԳERͼǸģͣΪΪȥ͹ģǼʵֵģ͡ݿϵͳʷϣֹģ͡״ģͺ͹ϵģͣЩݿϵͳDBMSʵֵļģ͡ʵʵݿӦĿоʹһӸģ͵ʵģ͵ת⣬θERͼϵǶ֪ʶͼֲͬERͼΪ֪ʶͼײʾؿ̻ʵʵϵ䱾ҲһּʵֵģͣW3CRDFԪģͣDZĵһ½ܵݡڱߵоݿ⣬˱ͼݹĽǶȥ֪ʶͼ׵ظԼоӦе⡣ͬʱΪ֪ʶͼױһо⣬ҲܲͬѧƣȻԴ֪ʶ̺ѧϰ֪ʶͼоеIJء


ͼ Google֪ʶͼʾ

ڵһ½֪ʶͼ׵ģͣڶص֪ʶͼڹҵļɹص֪ʶͼ׵ݹ⣬ͬѧ֪ʶͼоеIJأܽȫġ

1֪ʶͼ׵ģ
֪ʶͼסʻԾ2012516GoogleġKnowledge Graph֪ʶͼףĿĿǰ֪ʶͼձRDF(Resource Description Framework,Դģʽ)ģʾݡά֮ķ˹-(Tim Berners-Lee)1998ĸǹΪĵ磬Web of DataĿǰάWeb of Pagesġ֪άóӼͬĵӶûĵĹHTMLĵ﷨ڸպָʽʾĵǸ߼ĵеݷֱʾʲôϢĺüܹĵе,Լݺ֮ϵӶʹûԸܻشЩϢǿ԰һȫԵݿϵͳҲͨᵽWeb of Data漰Ϲ㣬Ľ漰֪ʶͼõеһĸRDFResource Description FrameworkԴܣRDFĻģͰͣԴ(Resource)ν(Predicate)(Statements)

ԴܹʹRDFʾĶ󶼳֮ΪԴϵϢʵȵȡԴԵURI(ͳһԴʶUniform Resource IdentifiersͨʹõURLһӼ)ʾͬԴӵвͬURI

νʣνԴԴĹϵÿһνʶ壬ڶԴνϵֵ(Property Value)ԴĹϵ
һ֣֮ͨΪRDFԪ< (subject)ν (predicate)(object)>һһԴURIʾνʿԱʾԣ߱ʾͱ֮ijֹϵʾʱֵͨһֵliteralһURIʾԴ

ͼ1չʾһٿƵRDFԪ֪ʶͼݼy:Abraham_LincolnʾһʵURIyʾǰ׺http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3(hasName,BornOndate,DiedOnDate)һϵDiedIn

ͼ1.RDFݵ

RDFݼW3CһֽṹѯSPARQLϵݿIJѯSQLSQLһSPARQLҲһԵĽṹѯԣûֻҪSPARQL﷨ȥѯϢɣҪȷָνвѯļʵֲ衣20081£ SPARQLΪW3Cʽ׼SPARQLеWHEREӾ䶨˲ѯҲԪʾDzĽ﷨ϸڣȤĶ߿Բο[1]ӽSPARQLԡҪRDFвѯ1809212ճ1865415˵ ѯԱʾͼ2SPARQL䡣

ͼ2.SPARQLѯ

ҲԽRDFSPARQLֱʾͼʽRDFУͿԷֱʾRDFͼеĽڵ㣬һRDFԪ飩ԱʾһߣνDZߵıǩSPARQLͬԱʾһѯͼ ͼ3ʾӦRDFͼSPARQLѯͼṹشSPARQLѯϾRDFͼҵSPARQLѯͼͼƥλãǻͼݿĻشSPARQLѯۻͼ3Уɽڵ005009010011ƵͼDzѯͼһƥ䣬ݴƥ֪SPARQLIJѯǡAbraham Lincoln

ͼ3.RDFͼSPARQLѯͼ

2֪ʶͼĿǰӦ
¼򵥽һ֪ʶͼڹҵ磬ڻеӦáʵ֪ʶͼ׼򣬰ҵƺͲƷ֪ʶ桢ҽƺ鱨Ŀǰ˲ٵӦãƪޣҪܻع˾IJƷ
ǰ֪ʶͼ׵ĻԾGoogleKnowledge GraphĿGoogle֪ͨʶͼףڲϢԴĹ硰Ҧ֪ʶͼеһʵ壬صһЩʱ䡢ص㡢ߡͬʱԽȡĺ͡ҦصĵͼƬʵGoogle֪ʶͼĿӦ÷ʽ淵ؽṩ֪ʶƬͳ淵ؽУͨDzѯƥĵбͼ4ʾȻ2012516ԺGoogle淵ؽУѯƥGoogle֪ʶͼеijʵ壬Google֪ʶƬʽʵһЩԺʵĹϵ統ҦʱGoogle᷵ͼ4ұʾ֪ʶƬҦijʱ䡢ص㡢ߣԼҶҦͼƬ

ͼ4.Googleе֪ʶƬ

Googleһ֪ʶͼ׵ĿСGoogle Rich Snippets(GoogleժҪ)ҳлΪÿһƪṩһĿҳժҪԱûжǷԼҳ档ͨҳժҪDzáȡʽʽɵģҳҳıҵؼصIJұȽҪľҳժҪظûGoogleĸժҪƷУȡûHTMLҳԽṹʽڵ֪ʶͼݣʵԵݡĿǰⷽı׼аRDFa, MicrodataSchema.orgȽṹݱǩûThinkpad T450ƷGoogleصWalmart̵ֶ꣩ҳժҪͼ7ʾУժҪаƷĴ֣Rating 3ǣĿVote 1ۣƷļ۸616.67 𣩡ʵЩҪݣûѾͨSchema.orgȽṹǩHTMLбʾˣͨ(Parser)ЩṹݣЩṹ֪ʶͼժҪͼ6չʾGoogleĽṹԹߣԴֶƷҳHTMLгȡᵽƷļ۸̱Ϣ

ͼ5.Walmart̵ֶ꣩һƷҳ

ͼ6.GoogleṹȡȡġWalmartƷҳ桱ϵĽṹ

ͼ7.ݳȡĽṹݲġWalmartƷҳ桱ժҪ

FacebookҲһƵıǩԣOpen Graph ProtocolOGPFacebookOGPЭ鶨罻ϵ֪ʶͼףFacebook Social Graph罻ûûƬӰۣͨFacebookGraph APIӵĵĹ罻û֪ʶͼݡSocial GraphϣFacebookƳGraph SearchͼܡûȻ⣬תΪSocial Graphϵͼ⣬Ӷشû⡣ҵFacebook˺ŵ¼ȻԡMy friends who live in Canadaʾڼôѵ˺ţͬأ롰Photos of my friends who live in CanadaʾЩѵFacebookϷƬϿԺȷĿFacebookSocial GraphûصԼƬ޷شȻ⡣FacebookûȻתΪSocial GraphĽṹѯͼ8пԿԭʼѯھȻԽӿģ鴦󣬶ӦĹ淶ȻԲѯͽṹѯֱΪmy friends who live in [id:12345]͡intersect(friends(me), residents(12345))[31]У12345Canada罻ͼ϶ӦFacebook IDӦĽṹѯύFacebookڲƵ罻ͼ׵ϵͳUnicorn[2]ѯõ𰸡

ͼ8.FacebookнȻתΪṹѯһʾ

֪ʶͼ׵ʴϵͳAmazonչEVIƷEVIԭTrue Knowledge[29]һҴҵ˾IJƷϾԪʽ֯ݣģ弼ûȻתΪṹIJѯҵظû[29]IBMWatsonϵͳҲͬDBpediaYago֪ʶͼشijЩȻ[3]ڴͳĵʴ𷽷֪ʶͼ׵ʴ׼ȷȸߣܻشԽ١ͼ9IBMWatsonϵͳ֪ʶͼ׼ԻشĸСڴͳıĸʣ֪ʶͼ׽ʴϾȷҪߵöࡣ

ͼ9.IBMWatsonϵͳμJeopardyսʵ(ժ[3])

3֪ʶͼݹ
֪ʶͼݹһЧش洢ͲѯRDFݼܵ˵ȫͬ˼·һǿеijݿϵͳϵݿϵͳ洢֪ʶͼݣRDF֪ʶͼ׵SPARQLѯתΪݿϵͳIJѯϵݿSQLѯеĹϵݿƷؼشѯĵоιϵ洢RDF֪ʶͼݣʹתSQLѯѯܸߣֱӿRDF֪ʶͼݵNative֪ʶͼݴ洢ͲѯϵͳNative RDFͼݿϵͳǵRDF֪ʶͼ׹ԣݿϵͳĵײŻ˼·ǷֱԽܡ

3.1 ڹϵģ͵ķ
RDBMSϵݿϵͳݹľ޴ɹԼҵƷͬʱRDFݵԪģͿԺӳɹϵģͣ˴о߳ʹùϵģRDF洢ͼķ [4,5,6]ƵıṹIJͬӦĴ洢ͲѯҲ죬ܼ־ķ

б
һָΪ򵥵ĽRDFӳ䵽ϵݿķǹһֻбSubjectPropertyObjectеRDFԪ鶼СһSPARQLѯƲѯдƽSPARQLתΪӦSQL䣬ɹϵݿشSQL䡣ǿԽͼ2еSPARQLѯתΪͼ10еSQL䡣

ͼ10.תԺSQLѯ

ȻַкܺõͨԣϴDzѯܲбĹģܷdzӴĿǰDBpeida֪ʶⳬ5Ԫ顣ͼ12ʾSQLжӲ⽫صӰѯܡ

ˮƽ洢
[7]ᵽˮƽ(Horizontal Schema)ǽ֪ʶͼеÿһRDF壨subjectʾΪݿеһСеаRDFݼеԡֵIJԵĺôƼ򵥣ͬʱ׻شijֵIJѯ״ѯͼ11ʾ

ͼ11.ˮƽ洢

ͼ13ĽṹΪ˻شͼ2еSPARQLѯתΪSQL䡣ͼ12ȽϣSQLûкʱӲѯЧҪԶͼ12еSQL䡣

ͼ12.ˮƽ洢ϵSQLѯ

Ȼˮƽ洢ȱҲǺԵ[7,8]һдڴСһĿֵĸٺܶ࣬ǻпܳǰݿܹܵϡ⡣ͨһ岢еֵ෴ڼֵȻһһУôнڴֵֵ˴洢أҴ⣬СӰѯЧʣ[7,8,9]˿ֵ⡣ˮƽ洢ڶֵԵ⡣һеǹ̶ģʹһֻһֵʵģݵı仯ܴܴĸ³ɱʵӦУݵĸ¿ܵԻɾԵȸı䣬漰ṹı仯ˮƽṹѴƵ⡣

Ա
Աˮƽ洢ŻÿʵԼϣͬʵзࡣÿһˮƽ洢ԵݿԱڼ̳ˮƽ洢ƵĻϣͨԵķ˱⡣Jena2[10,11]ʹԱ߶RDFԪIJѯЧʡоֲͬԱһΪԱ(clustered property table)һΪ(property-class table)

ͼ13. Ա

ԱصԾ۳һ࣬ÿһඨһݿʹˮƽʽ洢ЩԪ顣һЩԪ鲻κһDZһʣleft-over tableСͼ13УԵԣеԾ࣬ÿһˮƽ洢ͬģͼ7ԱṹҲԽͼ3еSPARQLѯתͼ12SQL䡣еʵ尴rdf:type࣬ÿһһˮƽʾ֯ʽҪÿʵ嶼һrdf:typeԣʶʵıǩ

ԱҪŵڿԼٲѯʱ-ӴۣԼ߲ѯЧʡԱһŵһصֵ洢һУͿԸеһЩ洢ٴ洢ռ䡣ͱԪ洢Ͳֵͬ洢һɴ洢ϵIJ㡣Jena2ȵоԼһЩо֤ԱЧԣԱҲԵȱݡһ[12]ָȻԱijЩѯܹ߲ѯܣǴ󲿷ֵIJѯ漰ӻϲԾԱԣѯΪ֣漰ԱԷԣѯδȷѯ漰Ա£ԱŵͽϲˡRDFԴӣṹԿܽϲӶԺĹԿܲǿƵܲͬԡʱֵͳˡݵĽṹԽֵԽԡʵУһһϿܴڶֵʱRDBMSЩʱʹ鷳Уǰ໥ӰġһĿСʱԽṹҪϵֵͣõ⣬ѯ漰ıӴʱݽṹԲǿͻֵָ[29]

ֱֲ
Abadi[12]һȫķֽ洢ģ(DSM[13]Decomposed Storage Model)ΪDSMݵĴ洢˴ֱָڴֱָĽṹ£ԪдΪNŰеıNRDFԵĸÿһűӦΪһֵ壬ڶǸϵֵÿһűеݰ򣬴ӶܹѸٶλض壬ҽ漰-ıתΪѸɵϲ (Merge Join)ڶԴ洢ռƽʱҲԶֵһнÿһֵĸ漰ضֵķʺֵ-塢ֵ-ֵӵܡͼ14ʾ˽ͼ1еRDFݼֽ8ԪÿԪ

ͼ14.Ԫֱָ

ȽԪ洢ֶԪ洢ʽµŵ㣺ظ֣Чؼ˴洢ռ䡣ڲѯʱֻҪ漰ѯıӶЧؼI/OۡԱʽֱָŵ¼ֱָӦڶֵݡͬԪ洢ʽһһһжֵʱֻҪ洢Ϊмɡֱ洢Ҳڽṹϲݣһδijԣô¼Ͳִ洢ʽг֣˿ֵIJԪ洢ҪԽо࣬ͲҪѰҺõľڲѯʱ޶ôѯݾͲڶУ˺ϲSW-Store[12]˴ֱָһĻ洢ࡣֱָͬȱ㡣ȣִ洢ʽ˱ӵʹЩӶʱ۽ϵ͵ĺϲӣܵҲDzɺԵġΣݸµѶȣSW-Storeд洢ԽпռŻԺϵͳĸܾսһĸҪ漰ͿΪ洢ʽӰI/Oۡϴʱ´۸൱⣬[14,15]Ϊڶд洢ṹǿ(ijЩRDFݼ)һЩ⣬صĽعһͼеܴ۽ϸߡǽ齫ϡ衢ṹϲݴ洢һűУԴ洢ṹ

ȫ
ǰ򵥵б洢ȱӴ϶ࡣΪ߼б洢IJѯЧʣĿǰһձ鱻Ͽɵķǡȫexhaustive indexingԣ RDF-3X[16]Hexastore[17] обϵĿԣ6֣ҰÿһϽۼB+-ȫĺô㣺һSPARQLѯеÿѯԪģʽתɶijϵķΧѯ ?m <BornOnDate> 1809-02-12ѯԪģʽתΪڣP,O,SϵķΧѯΪڣP,O,SУP, OΪ<BornOnDate>͡1809-02-12Ԫ鶼һȫĺôڿù鲢ӣMerge JoinӵĸӶȡ֪Ƕѭ(Nested Loop Join)ӵĸӶO(|L1|*|L2|) |L1||L2|ֱʾбijȡȻ鲢ӵĸӶO(MAX(|L1|, |L2|) ) ӣP,O,SпԵõ?m <BornOnDate> 1809-02-12ѯ?mȡֵЩȡֵ˳СͬģӣP,O,SҲԵõ?m <DiedOnDate> 1865-04-15ѯ?mȡֵЩȡֵҲ˳Сͨ鲢ǿԺҵͬʱѯ?mȡֵ

ȻȫԿֲһЩ򵥴ֱ洢ȱ㣬Ԫ洢ʽԽ⻹кܶࡣһͬԪ//ֵظظֻ˷Ѵ洢ռ䡣ӵIJѯҪдӲʹƵԽӲתΪϲӣSPARQLѯʱӲIJѯȻɺԡĹģ᲻ͣϵͳ½أĿǰϵͳ޷ֲַ֧ʽĴ洢ͲѯϵͳĿչԡģͶ޷ضͽд洢Żܻɴ洢ռ˷(磬ֵֶܶURIһֵַһĴ洢ռеȡֵ޷д洢Ż)Ϊ˽⣬Ŀǰȫֵ䷽ʽеֵַӳһIDֵӳķִֵ֧ΧԼַеӴԼSPARQLѯ

3.2 ͼģ͵ķ
ͨRDFԪ鿴ǩıߣRDF֪ʶͼݺȻطͼģͽṹˣеоߴRDFͼģͽṹĽǶRDFݣǽRDFΪһͼͨRDFͼṹĴ洢RDFݴ洢⡣ͼģͷRDFģ͵ΣԽϴ޶ȵıRDFݵϢҲڶϢIJѯ⣬ͼķʽ洢RDFݣԽͼ㷨ͼݿRDFݵĴ洢ѯ㷨ȻͼģRDF洢ѯҲԽ⡣һͨͼģͣRDFͼϵı߾бǩܳΪѯĿꣻڶ͵ͼ㷨ʱ临ӶȽϸߣҪĵԽʵʱѯʱ临Ӷȡ

[18]һͼƥ䷽شSPARQLķؿԴϵͳgStoreͼ15ϵͳܹͼڵRDF֪ʶͼݺ͹׶ΣȽûRDFԪļʾһͼGͨбķʽֱӴ洢ͼGΪ˼ӿͼƥѯٶȣͨķRDFͼGеÿʵڵھԺֵһBitstringĽڵ㣬ӶõһűǩͼG*һG*ͼVS-treeṹЧ֧߲ѯĽ׶εռˡڲѯ׶ΣûSPARQLѯתΪͼƥѯͼƥѯĽشû⡣ͼ16չʾ3-5ڹģԪĹʱ׼ԼLUBMWatDivϣgStoreϵͳĿǰʹøΪ㷺RDF֪ʶͼ״洢ѯϵͳVirtuosoApache Jena֮IJѯܶԱڻͼṹԿǵѯͼϢܵ˵ѯͼԽӣѯͼıԽࣩgStoreڶԱϵͳܻãеĿԴﵽһϵơgStoreķֲʽ汾10̨ɵClusterϿԽ50-100ڹģRDF֪ʶͼ׹

ͼ15.gStoreϵͳܹ

a.WatDiv 3Ԫģϵ

b.LUBM 5Ԫģϵ

ͼ16.ڹͨRDFݼϵıȽϽ

⣬UdreaGRIN㷨[39]شSPARQLѯ˼ǹһM-treeṹ[21]GRIN ͼϵľԼռ䡣еRDFͼϵĽڵʾGRINϵҶӽڵ㡣GRINϵķҶӽڵԪأcenterradiuscenterһĵ㣬radiusǰ뾶ȡRDFͼcenter·СڵradiusĽڵGRINǸ÷Ҷӽڵڵ㡣þԼGRINѸжRDFͼЩֲѯӶ߲ѯܡ
һҪᵽͼϵͳTrinity.RDF[20]΢оԺһֲַʽڴͼ档ͼġֲԡص㣬ϵͳͨڴƵʽRDFͼݡΪ˻شͼƥѯTrinity.RDFͨͼϵչ(Exploration)ԶͨJoin(Ӳѯ)IJҵͼƥλá

4֪ͬʶͼоIJ
ܵ˵֪ʶͼһо򣻼IJͬѧƶӲͬĽǶȶ֪ʶͼоͼ16չʾһֶѧƽо״ǰҪǴݿݹĽǶȶ֪ʶͼ׵оݽ˽ܣֱȻԴ֪ʶ̺ͻѧϰֱ򵥽⼸֪ʶͼоĿǰȵ㡣

ͼ16.ͬԡ֪ʶͼסоIJ

ȻԴ֪ʶͼ׵оҪ档һǡϢȡĿǰϴ󲿷Ȼǡǽṹıݣδӷǽṹıгȡ֪ʶͼҪԪһսԵĹ[22]һĿǰdzԾоǡ(Semantic Parser)ûȻת֪ʶͼ׵Ľṹѯ[23]
֪ʶҪҲȵо⡣һǴģ֪ʶĹDBpeida[24]Yago[25]ͨάٿϻȡ֪ʶӶģ֪ʶͼݼض(closed domain)֪ʶͼ׹ڹҵӦñȽϹ㷺һо֪ʶͼϵоע⵽֪ʶͼײͬڴͳݿı裨Closed-world assumption֪ʶͼײõǿ裨Open-world assumptionڿ£ϵͳ洢걸ģϵͳûбʾ洢ǿͨõġ(Statement)ȻΪȷݡ


ͼ 17. TransEģʾ

ѧϰҲ˶֪ʶͼ׵оŵĿ֪ʶͼ׵ġʾѧϰиΪԵоTransEģ[26]һ֪ʶͼףǽ֪ʶͼԪеÿνʶӳһάŻĿԱʾΪСͼ17еĹʽʽĻǣڴ֪ʶͼGκһԪ飬νʺͱʾΪs, p o, Ҫ(s)ν(p)(SUM)(o)ʾĽڲ֪ʶͼGеԪ飬໥뾡Զͼ17ӻTransEģ͵ĺ壬νͬԪ飬ǷֱǽƵġTransEģ͵Ļϣѧ˺ܶĽ֪ʶͼEmbeddingķЩģں֪ܶʶͼ׵νԤ⣬֪ʶȫȷǰķ׼ȷȶвС

5ܽ
֪ʶͼ(Knowledge Graph)ijֽǶ˵һҵװĴʻ㣻䱾Դͼݿصѧо򡣱ͼ֪ʶݹĽǶ֪ʶͼоȵ㣬Լͬѧƶ֪ʶͼײͬоءƪ޺ͱ˵ѧоˮƽľޣڸΧ֪ʶͼоӦõĽһ©򣬾ָ˺쵼ıѧݹоң1ԼǵĺߣڴRDF֪ʶͼݹķĹһRDF֪ʶͼݵͼݿϵͳgStore[18]2ȻʴϵͳgAnswer[27]3.ϵͳĹȤοϵͳԭʼVLDB 11[30]SIGMOD 14 [27], Լǽ֪ܽʶͼĿо˼·[28]4

1http://www.icst.pku.edu.cn/db/en/index.php/Main_Page

2http://www.icst.pku.edu.cn/intro/leizou/projects/gStore.htm

3 http://www.icst.pku.edu.cn/intro/leizou/projects/gAnswer.htm

4http://rdcu.be/o1nT

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[1] https://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/ 
[2] Michael Curtiss, Iain Becker, Tudor Bosman, Sergey Doroshenko, Lucian Grijincu, Tom Jackson, Sandhya Kunnatur, Søren B. Lassen, Philip Pronin, Sriram Sankar, Guanghao Shen, Gintaras Woss, Chao Yang, Ning Zhang: Unicorn: A System for Searching the Social Graph. PVLDB 6(11): 1150-1161 (2013)
[3] David A. Ferrucci, Eric W. Brown, Jennifer Chu-Carroll, James Fan, David Gondek, Aditya Kalyanpur, Adam Lally, J. William Murdock, Eric Nyberg, John M. Prager, Nico Schlaefer, Christopher A. Welty:
Building Watson: An Overview of the DeepQA Project. AI Magazine 31(3): 59-79 (2010)
[4] RDF Access to Relational Databases. http://www.w3.org/2003/01/21-RDF-RDB-access/
[5]W3C Semantic Web Advanced Development for Europe (SWAD-Europe). http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/Europe/reports/Scalable_rdbms_mapping_report/
[6]  Storing RDF in a relational database. http://infolab.stanford.edu/~melnik/rdf/db.html
[7]Zhengxiang Pan, Jeff Heflin. DLDB: Extending Relational Databases to Support Semantic Web Queries. In Proceedings of PSSS'2003.
[8] Daniel J. Abadi. Column Stores for Wide and Sparse Data. In Proceedings of CIDR'2007. pp.292~297
[9] Jennifer L. Beckmann, Alan Halverson, Rajasekar Krishnamurthy, Jeffrey F. Naughton. Extending RDBMSs To Support Sparse Datasets Using An Interpreted Attribute Storage Format. In Proceedings of ICDE'2006. pp.58~58
[10] K. Wilkinson. Jena property table implementation. In SSWS. 2006.
[11] Kevin Wilkinson, Craig Sayers, Harumi A. Kuno, Dave Reynolds. Efficient RDF Storage and Retrieval in Jena2. In Proceedings of SWDB'2003. pp.131~150
[12] Daniel J. Abadi, Adam Marcus, Samuel Madden, Kate Hollenbach. SW-Store: a vertically partitioned DBMS for Semantic Web data management. VLDB J., 2009: 385~406
[13] George P. Copeland, Setrag Khoshafian. A Decomposition Storage Model. In Proceedings of SIGMOD Conference'1985. pp.268~279
[14] Jennifer L. Beckmann, Alan Halverson, Rajasekar Krishnamurthy, Jeffrey F. Naughton. Extending RDBMSs To Support Sparse Datasets Using An Interpreted Attribute Storage Format. In Proceedings of ICDE'2006. pp.58~58
[15] Eric Chu, Jennifer L. Beckmann, Jeffrey F. Naughton. The case for a wide-table approach to manage sparse relational data sets. In Proceedings of SIGMOD Conference'2007. pp.821~832
[16] Thomas Neumann, Gerhard Weikum. RDF-3X: a RISC-style engine for RDF. In Proceedings of PVLDB2008: 647~659
[17] Cathrin Weiss, Panagiotis Karras, Abraham Bernstein. Hexastore: sextuple indexing for semantic web data management. PVLDB, 2008: 1008~1019
[18] Lei Zou, Jinghui Mo, Lei Chen, M. Tamer Özsu, Dongyan Zhao: gStore: Answering SPARQL Queries via Subgraph Matching. PVLDB 4(8): 482-493 (2011)
[19] Octavian Udrea, Andrea Pugliese, V. S. Subrahmanian: GRIN: A Graph Based RDF Index. AAAI 2007: 1465-1470
[20] Kai Zeng, Jiacheng Yang, Haixun Wang, Bin Shao, Zhongyuan Wang: A Distributed Graph Engine for Web Scale RDF Data. PVLDB 6(4): 265-276 (2013)
[21] Paolo Ciaccia, Marco Patella, Pavel Zezula: M-tree: An Efficient Access Method for Similarity Search in Metric Spaces. VLDB 1997: 426-435
[22] Anthony Fader, Stephen Soderland, Oren Etzioni: Identifying Relations for Open Information Extraction. EMNLP 2011: 1535-1545
[23] Percy Liang: Learning executable semantic parsers for natural language understanding. Commun. ACM 59(9): 68-76 (2016)
[24] Jens Lehmann, Robert Isele, Max Jakob, Anja Jentzsch, Dimitris Kontokostas, Pablo N. Mendes, Sebastian Hellmann, Mohamed Morsey, Patrick van Kleef, Sören Auer, Christian Bizer:
DBpedia - A large-scale, multilingual knowledge base extracted from Wikipedia. Semantic Web 6(2): 167-195 (2015)
[25] Thomas Rebele, Fabian M. Suchanek, Johannes Hoffart, Joanna Biega, Erdal Kuzey, Gerhard Weikum: YAGO: A Multilingual Knowledge Base from Wikipedia, Wordnet, and Geonames. International Semantic Web Conference (2) 2016: 177-185
[26] A. Bordes, N. Usunier, A. Garcia-Duran, J. Weston, and O. Yakhnenko. Translating embeddings for modeling multi-relational data. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pages 2787C2795, 2013
[27] Lei Zou, Ruizhe Huang, Haixun Wang, Jeffrey Xu Yu, Wenqiang He, Dongyan Zhao:
Natural language question answering over RDF: a graph data driven approach. SIGMOD Conference 2014: 313-324
[28] Lei Zou and M. Tamer Özsu. Graph-based RDF Data Management, Data Sci. Eng. (2017). doi:10.1007/s41019-016-0029-6, http://rdcu.be/o1nT (open access link)
[29] William Tunstall-Pedoe: True Knowledge: Open-Domain Question Answering Using Structured Knowledge and Inference. 80-92
[30] Lei Zou, M. Tamer Özsu,Lei Chen, Xuchuan Shen, Ruizhe Huang, Dongyan Zhao. gStore: A Graph-based SPARQL Query Engine. VLDB Journal, VLDB J, 2014.
[31] ,ͼķչ,йѧͨѶ20138µ90

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